Title: Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants utilized by forest edge communities in southern Sierra Leone
Authors: Jonathan Johnny1*, Aiah Lebbie2 and Richard Wadsworth2
A total of 128 medicinal plant species belonging to 71 genera and 46 families were identified and used to treat 42 human ailments. Euphorbiaceae was the leading family with 14 species, followed by Rubiaceae and Leg-Caesalpiniaceae with 12 and 8 species, respectively. Seven species (Coffea stenophylla, Garcinia afzelii, Mitragyna stipulosa, Irvingia gabonensis, Milicia regia, Nauclea diderrichii and Nesogordonia papaverifera) are of conservation concern. Herbs are the highest followed by shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Leaves are the most used parts, followed by roots, fruits, stems, flowers, nuts, tubers and seeds. The highest calculated Relative Frequency of Citations Index (RFC) was for Musa sapientum, followed by Zingiber officinale, Anisophyllea laurina, Cola nitida, Nauclea latifolia, Tetracera potatoria Allophylus africanus, Cassia sieberiana and Termitomyces microcarpus. The highest Use Value index (UV) was calculated for Cola nitida (1.9) followed by Nauclea latifolia (1.56), Zingiber officinale (1.55) Ficus exasperata and Tetracera potatoria (1.44) respectively. Medicinal plants knowledge is strongly associated with the elderly in secret societies which are structured along gender lines. Plant use for medicinal reason actually addresses a significant part of the way of life and customs of the people living in this area and other rural locations in Sierra Leone.
Title: Climate Change Impact Chain Factors in ECOWAS
Authors: Edward R. Rhodes1 and Calvin Atewamba2
Appropriate responses to climate change in the agriculture sector are dependent on knowledge of the status and trends of the factors of the climate change impact chain in the sector. The objective of the study was to broadly assess key human, environmental, and biophysical factors in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), mainly within the decade following the launching of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme (CAADP). This was done through a review of literature and analysis of data mainly from World Bank and FAO sources. The status of and changes in these factors were generally unsatisfactory. Population growth rate was high. Average daily maximum temperatures were projected to rise by up to 3.50C by 2050. Up to 35% of the lands were estimated to be severely to very severely degraded. Total Internal Renewable Water resources per capita were below international requirements in many countries of ECOWAS. Total Renewable Water resources per capita were more abundant but decreased over years. The substantial arable land and renewable water resources and carbon stored in soil (23.5 Gt) and forest biomass (6.3 Gt) are attributes of ECOWAS. Agricultural production was higher in the Gulf of Guinea Zone compared to the Sudano-Sahelian Zone but yields of rice, maize and yam were higher in the Sudano-Sahelian Zone. Food security status was unsatisfactory across ECOWAS although the production of rice, maize, cassava, yam, groundnut, cocoa, and palm oil (in most cases), and livestock, fisheries and aquaculture increased. The increase between 2003 and 2013 for aquaculture was dramatic (847%). Overall increases in the production of rice, maize, sorghum, cassava, yam and groundnut and cattle, sheep and goats were mainly due to increased crop area harvested (42%) and livestock numbers (44%). Policies should be revisited, institutions strengthened and financial investments made for ECOWAS to realize its potential to significantly contribute to food security and carbon storage.
Title: Ebola and Public Authority: Saving Loved Ones in Sierra Leone
Authors: Melissa Parker iD a , Tommy Matthew Hansonb , Ahmed Vandic , Lawrence Sao Babawod , and Tim Allen iDe
It is unclear how public authorities shaped responses to Ebola in Sierra Leone. Focusing on one village, we analyze what happened when “staff, stuff, space, and systems” were absent. Mutuality between neighbors, linked to secret societies, necessitated collective care for infected loved ones, irrespective of the risks. Practical learning was quick. Numbers reco- vering were reported to be higher among people treated in hidden loca- tions, compared to those taken to Ebola Treatment Centres. Our findings challenge positive post-Ebola narratives about international aid and military deployment. A morally appropriate people’s science emerged under the radar of external scrutiny, including that of a paramount chief.
Title: Tree Peony - Floral Bud Development and Flowering Mechanism
Authors: Philip M.P. Mornya1 Fangyun Cheng2
Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is native to China and is a magnificent, beautiful and attractive ornamental plant. Flowering is critical in the development and life-cycle of most plants. The time of flowering largely determines the socio-economic and cultural values of plants. In China and Japan, tree peony cultivation is a traditional flower industry practice. Hence, regulating the time of flowering of tree peony is critical for potted and cut flower supply to these markets during the New Year and the Spring Festival periods. This book represents a research into the physiology, growth and development of the plant, since this could enhance the quality and rate of flower production.